Thursday, March 18, 2010

Concept of Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta and Modern Science
(With Special Reference to Brahmakumaris Philosophy)

Presented paper on 18th International Congress of Vedanta, held at University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA, USA (16th-19th July 2009).

Introduction :

Philosophy, Modern Science and Spirituality – a compact trinity of the most elevated dimensions of knowledge can definitely explore the real nature of any physical or non-physical entity in this universe and can also give an integrated vision of truth and an integrated personality by which one can achieve perfection in every milieu of the activity.

The object of Science is to know the nature of reality in physical realm. All the scientific explorations aim at discovering certain secrets behind the forces and phenomena of Nature and understanding the laws underlying them. Similarly, Philosophy explores both the realities, mundane and transcendental; but all the established philosophical systems e.g. Advaita Vedānta, Sāmkhya, Nyāya etc. impart explanations on these two realities with their own methods of logic to justify them.

Here in the present paper, endeavours have been made to throw some light on the spiritual perspective of Brahmākumārīs. Spiritual Wisdom which promotes spirituality has the power to synthesize all branches of knowledge integrated into one undifferentiated whole; because it is so logical as to gain support from scientific and philosophical methods of exploration. It gives a comprehensive and clear world-view that verily inspires and unites mankind to a higher level of consciousness and a way of life enriched with the divine qualities. It has the sound blend of knowledge of both mundane and transcendental realities. Brahmākumārīs, an international spirituo-educational institution, shows a special paradigm of spiritual wisdom for all the humanity towards acquiring its culmination. Brahmākumār Jagdish Chander, Chief Spokesperson of this spiritual organization, tries to establish an essence of the true nature of the subject-matter in metaphysics through applying proper logic as well as scientific and philosophical techniques.

Attempts have been made in the present paper to focus on the views of Advaita Vedāntins, Modern Scientists, Physicists and Brahmākumārīs to provide a deep insight into the nature of Consciousness i.e. the Primary Reality.

Advaita Vedāntic View :

Advaita Vedānta is considered as the culmination-point among all the Indian philosophical systems. Referring to the Upanişadic statements, the founder of this Vedāntic school Ādi Śańkarācārya and his followers like Swāmī Vivekānanda have lucidly elucidated on the concept of Consciousness or Self. According to Śańkarācārya, Ātman or Brahman (Transcendental Self) has the nature of undifferentiated consciousness. Ātman is eternal, self-luminous, universal consciousness which shines by its own light and it reveals Jiva (Empirical Self) and all the objects which cannot reveal themselves. It is devoid of enjoying nature (bhoktŗtva) and activity (kartŗtva); but it appears to be an enjoying and active agent owing to its limiting adjuncts. Ever-liberated Ātman is beyond space, time and causality which is non-dual and one (ekamevādvitīyam). The Absolute, Transcendental Supreme Self is the foundation of the empirical universe and the Supreme, infinite Brahman is the essence of Ātman.

Jīva is the Ātman limited or individuated by the adjuncts of the body, the sense-organs, manas, buddhi and ahamkāra. It is the psycho-physical organism. Ātman, the Supreme Self, is one; but it appears to be many individual selves (Jīva) owing to its limiting adjuncts (upādhi). The internal organ (antah-karaņa) is the adjunct of the Ātman and it takes the forms of manas, buddhi, vijñāna and citta. Thus the internal organ in its four-fold form is the individuating principle of the Jīva. Ātman is the transcendental and universal self, while Jīva is the empirical and individual self. Jīva is neither a part nor a modification of the Ātman but it is only its appearance. The adjuncts as body, sense-organs, manas, buddhi and the like are creations of avidyā (ātma-māyā-visarjita) which are not real in nature. Jīva is an imaginary construction of the adjunct of buddhi that has no existence apart from buddhi which is the individuating principle and with the destruction of the psycho-physical organism, Jīva, the individual self, merges in Ātman, the supreme self. The pure consciousness or Brahman is the irrelative, formless, supreme reality that manifests itself in various forms (eko’ham bahu syāma) and the whole universe is its apparent transformation.

Refuting the analogy or example of space occupied by jars and the great space with souls and Brahman respectively, given by Śańkarācārya, Brahmākumār Jagdish states that Souls (Jīva) are conscient beings and have individual samskāra and with the destruction of their respective bodies, they cannot merge into the Supreme Soul who is perfect and omniscient. In fact, the souls can never be as perfect as God; for, if they could, they would not have an occasion to remain in illusion or be in a state of ignorance. It should be remembered that the happiness of one soul affects others. A man’s happy state affects even plants – it has been proved. So, in no way, the analogy of the space of jars etc. suits the typical case of God and souls, of which the former is a perfect conscient being and the latter are under illusion (Māyā or avidyā) and are, therefore, affected and are imperfect and vary even among themselves.

Modern Advaita Vedāntī, Swāmī Vivekānanda gives his view regarding this matter : “According to the Advaitins proper, the followers of Śańkarācārya, the whole universe is the apparent evolution of Brahman. Brahman is the material cause of the universe; but not really, only apparently. The celebrated illustration used is that of the rope and the snake, where the rope appears to be the snake; but was not really so…Even so, the whole universe, as it exists, is that Being. It is unchanged and all the changes we see in it are only apparent. These changes are caused by Deśa, Kāla and Nimitta or according to a higher psychological generalization, by Nāma and Rūpa.”

Again he says : “Modern science has really made the foundations of religion strong… What the metaphysicians call ‘being’, the physicists call ‘matter’; but there is no real fight between the two; both are one. Though an atom is invisible, unthinkable, yet in it are the real power and potency of the universe. That is what the Vedāntist says of Ātman.”

Criticizing the above-mentioned view of Swāmī Vivekānanda, B.K. Jagdish logically renders his statement : " The Monists are not able to explain how God or Brahman totally gave up its divinity, Knowledge or Consciousness. How the immutable became mutable? Since the Monists cannot say that God is mutable, therefore, they say that the transformation is not real, but is only apparent. But, in the case of the forces of Nature or Matter, the scientists say that the transformation is real or factual; it is not apparent or illusory. So the analogy of the snake and the rope is not befitting and the attempt at unification of God, souls and matter is only arbitrary. The parallel of the unified-field theory, cited as an analogy by the Monists is only a contrived one and, in fact, goes against them."

"There is no denying the fact that the things of the world are transitory or momentary. They are changing every moment. But this change is factual and real and this momentary existence also, for that moment, is real. There are so many sub-atomic particles and even if we thought that one of these kinds, say the Quarks, are the ultimate or original form of energy, we know that even that is momentary. But it does not mean that it has only illusory existence or that it does not exist. Moreover, even the Quarks, or whatever be the ultimate or original form of Matter or Nature, are not conscious. So we cannot say that 'the Being' and 'the Matter' are the same. Certainly, we cannot."

Modern Scientists’ Views :

In the light of Modern Science, especially in physiology, it is described that Consciousness and Body are two different entities where the Body changes (because every seven years old cells are replaced by new ones), grows or decays with age; but Consciousness maintains its identity and continuity. If a person be considered as a mere body including brain, the fact of his continuous identity and continuous consciousness cannot be explained.

B.K. Jagdish gives stress on these two realities by saying – The body may get exhausted of physical energy where as the Mind or Consciousness may feel inexhaustibleness of physical, metaphysical or spiritual energy and may, in fact, grow with the years. While the body ages with years, the Mind gets only wiser or more experienced. The heart, which is a part of the body, may grow weaker with age; but the Consciousness or Mind may grow in its power to love or hate. Thus the two are different entities whereas the body is cellular and molecular, i.e. physical and is subject to law of chemistry and physics and physiology. The Mind, Consciousness or Soul is psychic, spiritual or metaphysical.

Many eminent scientists and physicists such as Max Planck, Eugene Wigner, Fritjof Capra and Erwin Schroedinger have thrown much light on this Consciousness in different angles.

(i) Max Planck has said : “Consciousness, I regard as fundamental. I regard Matter as derivative of Consciousness. We cannot get behind consciousness. Everything that we talk about, everything that we regard as existing postulates consciousness.”

The sentence “Matter is derivative of Consciousness”, can be interpreted that both matter and consciousness are non-different, i.e. both are two sides of the same coin. But B.K Jagdish declares that the existence of all the things is known only because of the existence of consciousness. So consciousness is a fundamental reality.

(ii) Nobel physicist Wigner says : “There are two kinds of reality or existence – the existence of my consciousness and the reality of existence of everything else. This later is not absolute, but only relative. Excepting immediate sensations, the content of my consciousness, everything else is a construct.”

Through the Principle of Indeterminacy, Heisenberg finally stated that while observing quantum particles, uncertainty or indeterminacy would always remain and it cannot be eliminated. Einstein, who didn’t believe in this uncertainty principle, said that there must be a ‘hidden variable’ somewhere which is responsible for this uncertainty. In 1961, Wigner gave his statement that it is the Consciousness of the observing scientists which is itself the hidden variable. He asserted that it is impossible to give an accurate and certain description of quantum processes “without explicit reference to consciousness”.

B.K. Jagdish’s comment on this above statement : If Wigner meant that the consciousness of the observer is a material energy which affects the observed particles, he would be wrong; because consciousness is not a form of material energy. Consciousness of the observing scientist most probably affects the quantum particles, but in another way. Consciousness or Thought (which is one form of manifestation of consciousness) itself is non-physical or non-material, but it works through brain. Its own field interacts with the electro-magnetic field of the brain waves at a very subtle level, perhaps, at the level of photons. It is those brain’s waves whose voltage can be measured and field can be determined that affect the quantum particles.

Therefore Matter and Consciousness interact and influence each other; but they are not convertible into each other.

(iii) David Bohm has used the concept of ‘Holon’ in his theory of matter where he called it ‘An implicate order’. The scientists have felt that the inclusion of consciousness as a factor in determining external reality, as Geoffrey Chew has suggested, is an indispensable necessity. Famous scientist Fritjof Capra has asserted that Consciousness is an essential feature of David Bohm’s Holon Theory, according to which the movement of one single particle is connected with the movement of the entire universe.

B.K Jagdish puts his statement : If all these assertions mean that it is necessary to understand that beside Matter, Consciousness also exists as a primary reality and in order to understand the universe, it is essential to understand Consciousness also, then that also is alright. But, if by making the above statements, one means to say that Consciousness and Matter are inter-convertible or that souls and matter are one and the same entity, one changeable into the other, even as the Monists say, then their these assertions are without any foundations. They are mere assumption, unsupported by logic or science.

(iv) Erwin Schroedinger has also given the argument or statement on the concept of consciousness. He contends : “Consciousness is never experienced in the plural, only in the singular… How does the idea of plurality so emphatically opposed by the Upanishadic writers arise at all?... Consciousness finds itself intimately connected with and dependent on the physical state of a limited region of matter - the body… The only possible alternative is simply to keep the immediate experience that consciousness is a singular of which that plural is unknown, that there is only one thing and that, what seems to be a plurality, is merely a series of different aspects of this one thing produced by a deception (Indian Māyā). Similar view has also been seen in the 4th chapter of his book ‘My View of the World’.
Here Schroedinger has delivered this statement in support of Monism. Commenting on this view, B.K. Jagdish states : “Consciousness is never experienced in the plural, only in the singular.” He shows the error committed here is that Schroedinger is taking ‘Consciousness’ and ‘Conscious entities’ as one and the same, whereas the fact is that these are two different entities.

To illustrate this point further, B.K. Jagdish gives an example of ‘fragrance’ and ‘flowers’. ‘Fragrance’ in general sense, is one or singular; but the fragrant flowers – roses, jasmine, lotus etc. are different and many or plural. Each one of these varieties has ‘fragrance’ in singular; but each one of the flowers is also different from others. If, therefore, we keep in mind that ‘consciousness’ finds manifestation in the forms of thoughts, desires, emotions, memory, judgement etc. and these are different from one to the other individual, then we wouldn’t say that souls are not plural. Schroedinger has, therefore, been wrong in identifying ‘Souls’ with ‘Consciousness’ and there too, he has lost sight of the fact that even ‘Consciousness’ as manifested in each individual case, is not the same and therefore, not singular.

(v) Thomas Huxley, British biologist and Darwinist has said : “I understand the main tenet of materialism to be that there is nothing in the universe but matter and force, two primitive factors… It seems to me pretty plain that there is third thing in the universe, to wit, Consciousness, which.. I cannot see to be matter or force or any conceivable modification of either.” Thus according to him “Consciousness is not a material force”.

(vi) Sir John C. Eccles in his book “Self and its Brain” says that the experienced unity (of consciousness or mind) comes not from a neuro-physiological synthesis, but from the proposed integrating character of the self-conscious mind. He made his firm opinion that self or consciousness is not an epiphenomenon of the brain.

(vii) Performing many experiments by stimulating various sites or points on the brain, scientist Penfield came to the conclusion that consciousness is located near the Hypothalamus and the Brainstem and it is not an epiphenomenon of the brain.

(viii) Dr. Raymond A. Moody, in his book “Life After Life” conducting research on ‘the clinically dead’ describes that the soul, the self or the conscious entity doesn’t die with the body; but rather survives after the body has been disposed of.
In this way, modern philosophers and scientists have elaborated much on the area of consciousness with their enlightened views or statements. Now the disposition of Brahmākumārīs depicted with illustrations logically and meaningfully by Brahmākumār Jagdish Chander, is being discussed here.

Brahmākumārīs’ View :

According to Brahmākumārīs’ philosophy, Consciousness is an essential and inherent attribute of the metaphysical energy called Soul, different from the organic and inorganic matter, body and the brain. As electricity is known by various names depending upon its different manifestations such as light, power, heat and electro-magnetic force, so also Consciousness manifests itself in various forms and is named as Mind, Intellect, Memory, Emotion, Impression (Samskāra) and so on. Ego, Mind, Intellect etc. are not material in nature; but the very consciousness or the soul-energy becomes manifest as thoughts, memory etc. as it comes in contact with the material body. The conscient soul functions through consciousness; but the brain limits it and enables it to have an experience of only three-dimensional objects, while without this limiting faculty, the Self can have multi-dimensional experience and exceptional insight. The soul does have an aura which appears in the form of subtle body, having different brightness depending upon the degree of its purity. The Self or soul is a point of light which is spiritual in nature, divine in its original potential scintillating with seven divine qualities – Knowledge, Purity, Happiness, Peace, Love, Bliss and Power, and is different from the mundane light.
Souls (Ātmā) originally dwell in the Soul-world or Brahma-loka, i.e. far beyond this material world with the Parent or Supreme Soul (Paramātmā or Īśvara) in the incorporeal, inactive, thoughtless and calm state. But when they come down to this earth and take birth in the form of bearing the bodies, they become known as individual souls (Jīvātmā). Within body, soul resides in between the two eye-brows, the central point of the Hypothalamus, Peneal and Pituitary glands and from there it controls the brain and the whole body. Souls are plural and are not parts of God. All souls are eternal sons of God. In the state of liberation or release, the soul does not merge into God, who has his separate identity. God or Paramātmā is also a soul, a point of spiritual energy, but He is supreme among all souls and is not bounded by any action and its reactions. He is beyond the limitation of birth and death. He is omnipotent, omniscient and ocean of all divine qualities e.g. knowledge, bliss, peace, purity etc, but is not omnipresent or all-pervasive entity like Brahman of monists. Souls are numerous, individual and immortal. Therefore, the analogies of Sparks to Fire and Rosary etc. given by Advaita Vedāntins, are erroneous or fallacious.

All the knowledge, namely science, is a result of a person’s abilities that are only manifestations of consciousness at various levels. Consciousness is the first or the prime reality; for, without it, all the realities and laws - physical, chemical, mechanical etc. would remain unknown. It is consciousness that knows and can know, or learns and can learn. Consciousness is the knower (Jñātā), while the material forms of reality or the events and phenomena belong to the realm of known or knowable (Jñeya). The use and purposes of material forms are determined by the knower, consciousness, and it is the consciousness who experiences or consumes the physical things. So there is vast difference between ‘I or Self’ and the ‘Matter’ i.e. material, physical, phenomenal or transient. It is ‘I’ or ‘Consciousness’ that makes continuity possible in life and without it, all would be meaningless, purposeless, useless and worthless.

Consciousness is not observable and quantifiable; hence it is out of the scope of science. Therefore, either science should enlarge its scope or it can be studied in the discipline called ‘Spiritual Science’ or ‘Meta Science’. ‘Consciousness’ is the other name for the ‘Self’. We give it the label ‘consciousness’ in order to distinguish it from all that which doesn’t have ‘consciousness,’ i.e. which cannot think, judge, remember, analyze, focus, decide and do such other mental, intellectual or emotional activities. Each one of us is an individual ‘Self’. Consciousness has a moral dimension. All our actions or efforts have some motives underlying them and we employ some means to reach our goals or to attain certain ends. Motives determine our attitudes and outlook and influence our behaviours that are related to Values or ethical principles. In other words, Consciousness has another aspect, namely ‘Conscience’.

In conclusion, B.K. Jagdish clearly points out that if any philosophy denies the existence of soul or self as a separate conscious entity, then it leads to peacelessness. The learned ones in science try to discover with-out; but they do not try to know the ‘self’ i.e. with-in. Without the scientific knowledge of the self, one would have only a distorted, incomplete or fractured and fragmented world-view.

Conclusion :

From the above discussions, it can be maintained that Consciousness or spiritual energy is quite different from the material forms of energy manifested in the mundane world. The super-mundane entity soul, self, spirit or psyche is eternally existent and conscient in its nature and acts and reacts to the stimuli and also thinks, feels and reaps the fruits of its actions. Hence, one should always endeavour to recognize one’s own true identity i.e. divine, pure, conscient, infinitesimal point of metaphysical energy giving up identification with the physical or the material, then that paves the way towards perfection and by acquiring the completely true knowledge of Self, Supreme Self and the Universe, one should approach to a holistic world-view. In this regard, Brahmākumārīs’ deliberation gains a place of special significance with a comparative philosophical perspective.

References :

1. Eternal Drama of Souls, Matter and God, Part-I, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishva-Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1998, Rpt.

2. The Eternal World Drama (Part-II of the series, titled ‘Eternal Drama of Souls, Matter and God’), B.K. Jagdish Chander Hassija, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1985, 3rd Edition.

3. Brahmasūtra-Śāńkara-Bhāşya (S.B, Bra.Sū,), with Ratnaprabhā Commentary, Bholebābā, Bhāratīya Vidyā Prakāshan, Delhi, 2004.

4. Īśādinau Upanişad with Śāńkara Bhāşya (S.B.), Gita Press, Gorakhpur, 2000.

5. Māndūkya Kārikā with Śāńkara Bhāşya (S.B.), Gita Press, Gorakhpur, 1998.

6. The complete Works of Swāmī Vivekānanda, Advaita Ashram, Calcutta, 1977.

7. Science and Spirituality, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Brahmakumaris World Spiritual University, Pandav Bhawan, Mount Abu, 1988.

8. Parallels between Science and Religion and Philosophy and Science - A Critical Review, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhawan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1994, 1st edition.

9. What is Life with Mind And Matter & Autobiographical Sketches, Erwin Schrodinger, Cambridge University Press, London, 2002.

10. My View of the World, Erwin Schrodinger, Cambridge University Press, 1964

11. The Turning Point, Fritjof Capra, Flamingo, London, 1983.

12. Symmetries And Reflections, Eugene P. Wigner, The M.I.T. Press, USA, 1970.

13. James Jeans : Philosophical Aspects of Modern Science, George Allen and Unwin, 1932.

14. Mysticism and the New Physics, Michael Talbot, Bantom Book, New York, 1971.

15. Do you know your Real Self, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhawan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1994.

16. Complementarity of Science and Spirituality for better life, B.K Jagdish Chander, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan.

17. A History of Indian Philosophy, 2 Vols, Jadunath Sinha, 1956.

18. A Critical survey of Indian Philosophy, Chandradhar Sharma, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1990, Rpt.


Scientific Dimensions of Spiritual Energy :
Brahmakumaris’ Perspective

Presented paper on 84th Indian Philosophical Congress, held at University of Mumbai (24th – 27th Oct 2009).


The whole creation is the combined manifestation of both physical and non-physical energies. Science explores the material aspects of nature only through its limited scientific methods and techniques. But the knowledge of Self, the nature of Thought or Consciousness or Spiritual energy i.e. the Primary Reality as clearly accepted by all of the famous scientists and physicists, is beyond the scope of Science because Self is not observable and quantifiable. Hence another advanced discipline called ‘Spiritual Science’ or ‘Meta Science’ is significant to study this prime factor. Spiritual Science has the inner power to explain the concepts and laws of metaphysics by its subtle techniques of deep insight and revelation.

In this regard, Brahmakumaris, a renowned international spirituo-educational organization shows a unique path for the whole mankind towards attainment of both mundane and transcendental perfection by its spiritual knowledge. B.K Jagdish, Chief Spokesperson of this institution and a multi-faceted personality, has made attempts to shed light on the two realities - material and meta-physical assimilating both the laws and methods of Science as well as Spirituality.

In the present research paper, endeavours have been made from Brahmakumaris’ perspective to focus and render a concise note on Spiritual Energy on the basis of Modern Scientific Dimensions especially Quantum Theory, Theory of Relativity, Laws of Thermo-dynamics and so on and to justify the Realities of meta-physics which are logically built on and paralleled with Physics.

1. Spiritual Energy - A point of Non-material light

Spiritual energy has only the inherent, eternal quality called ‘consciousness’ which manifests itself in various forms namely thinking power, judgement power, memory, emotions, impression, feelings etc. and clearly differentiates Spiritual energy from Physical energy which does not possess these qualities. Mind, Intellect and Samskāra (Sub-conscious mind) – these three are the constituting subtle factors of consciousness. Consciousness is not an epiphenomenon of the brain or the electro-magnetic forces at work in the brain and elsewhere, nor can it be considered a product of chemical reactions taking place at the cellular level in the brain and other parts of the body. Souls and Supreme Soul are point sources of spiritual energy where as the rests i.e. the organic and inorganic Matter, the body and the brain etc are within the realm of physical energy. Spiritual energy is the knower, experiencer, observer or possessor that determines the use and purposes of the material things (energy) to get comforts and pleasures out of these. So, spiritual energy is the first or the prime reality and without knowing this, all other knowledge systems would be meaningless, purposeless and worthless.

Soul is a point of light which is spiritual in nature, divine in its original potential overwhelmed with seven divine qualities – Knowledge, Purity, Joy, Peace, Love, Bliss and Power and is different from the mundane light. As matter in its original form is made of particles, particularly sub-atomic light particles (photons), so the conscient energy is also a divine light particle (spiriton). Seven colours of light - Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange & Red are reflected through seven spiritual qualities because light is the ultimate form of energy. Having shorter wave-lengths and more energy content, the subtler metaphysical energies controls the physical energies effectively. That’s why human being’s desires and intents are so powerful a force in nature that they can literally organize space-time events.

2. Dimensionless energy has the fifth dimension

A point does not have any dimensions. So, as a point of super-mundane light Soul is a dimensionless reality. According to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, the world is a four-dimensional space-time continuum. It means all reality exists both in three dimensional space (i.e. latitude, longitude and altitude) and in time (i.e. fourth dimension) and the two are indivisible. All measurements of time are really measurements in space and conversely, measurements in space depend on measurements of time. But in metaphysics, the action of living beings has the fifth dimension, namely the moral dimension. Action of living beings has not only a reaction as one understands it in chemistry or physics but it results either in happiness or sorrow or a mixture of the two for the doer, the soul. Therefore, the moral aspect of action should be considered before doing.

Human being (Conscient soul with body) is neither a machine nor a gene. This sentient person has will and makes effort to achieve goal by using the pronoun ‘I’ for itself as a doer. The soul (spiritual power) which abides in the body* sets the body working by dint of its motive force or thought power. Thought or feeling is the agency which keeps the brain at work and the nervous system functioning. The body by itself can’t do anything. The soul works as a driver or the motive power and the body and its food as the motor power and the brain as the starter, the gear or the steer wheel.

3. Soul-speed – faster than Light-speed

According to the Theory of Relativity, the speed of light is the upper limit to the speed of material objects or particles. But in 1969, scientists namely O.M.P Bilaniuk, E.C.G Sudarshan have predicted on theoretical grounds that a particle can move faster than light which is named by G. Feinberg as Tachyon, a super-luminous particle. On the basis of this view, there are three types of sub-atomic particles –

• Those particles which have a positive physical mass and which move at a speed far less than the speed of light are known as Tradons.
• Those particles which have velocity equal to the speed of light and which possess zero rest-mass, are called as Photons or Luxons.
• Those particles which travel with velocity greater than light and have imaginary rest-mass, are named as Tachyons.

From the above statements, it may be considered that the minutest particles tachyons move at speed faster than light. Generally, the velocity of a particle gradually decreases because of the presence of other particles of the medium through which it passes. The velocity of light in vacuum is 3x108 m/sec, while in water it is 2.25x108 m/sec. But Tachyon’s speed cannot gradually be lowered by any means.

In that way, the soul which has less than zero mass i.e. imaginary mass can move with a velocity faster than light because it being a non-material entity, other particles in the atmosphere or in bodies can’t lower its speed. Gravitation, friction, forces of Nature also cannot affect the incorporeal soul. Thus a soul would take almost no time to leave one body and incarnate into another at a very great distance. It can also go to the Soul World which is far beyond this material world in a flash through thought power.

4. Supreme Soul (God) – Knower of three aspects of Time

Albert Einstein, the world-famous scientist opines that if one can travel faster than light then one can know three aspects of Time. The soul can know the present, past and future or at least it can know what is happening in a particular part of the world at present just a fraction of time. But for this, the soul has to be free of meta-physical pull i.e. attachment with or of others and has to have its meta-physical mirror i.e. Mind clear or its Intellect divinized. Only Supreme Soul, God knows everything what is happening in this whole universe because He can travel at infinite speed called ‘God Speed’ and has no any mental attachments or impurities. That’s why, He is always praised as omniscient.

5. Eternal point of light with elliptical form & Zero mass

According to the theory “Confinement of light in a medium” by the physicists Dr. P.K Jena and Dr. T. Pradhan – “Light of selected frequencies can be confined within the material whose dielectric constant is spherically systematic but decreases radially outward, becoming negative after a certain radius”. On account of this theory, quarks, the tiny sub-atomic particles are confined within protons and neutrons.

So, what is a fact of modern physics about the ultimate form of matter (physical energy) may have its parallel in meta-physics also regarding the ultimate geometrical form of Soul and Supreme Soul (spiritual energies). Thus the entities of meta-physics ‘God’ and ‘Soul’ are such divine and conscient light which are ‘confined’ in their respective oval form (aura). Further, that light is eternal in this form not only because it goes round and round in elliptical orbits of infinitesimal size without ever leaving the medium but also on the following grounds-

B.K Jagdish gives a clear justification about the truth related to these metaphysical energies, referring some of the prime statements of physics –

(i) “If there is any ultimate stuff of the universe, it is pure energy because sub-atomic particles are not made of energy, they are energy. This is what Einstein theorized in 1905; sub-atomic interactions therefore, are interactions of energy with energy. At sub-atomic level, there is no longer a clear distinction between what is and what happens between the actor and the action. At the sub-atomic level, the dancer and the dance are one.” (Quoted from Dancing Wu Li Masters)
This view explains why despite spending energy, the soul-energy is not exhausted. It also explains how the impressions (samskāra) abide in soul, the doer or the experiencer.

(ii) According to physicists, if two particles are made to collide, they are destroyed and in their place, two new ones are created. Both of these decay spontaneously into two additional particles, making them four. This shows that matter, at energy level is indestructible and the energy can act at its level not getting exhausted but only changing forms and multiplying.
This gives a clear hint how despite expending energy, the conscious energy of soul remains intact. Like sub-atomic particles, the soul doesn’t get destroyed, it is immortal forever as it is self-conserving. The spending of its energy regenerates energy though its qualities or attributes may change.

(iii) According to Einstein, matter or mass causes a ‘curvature’ of space-time. Thus in meta-physics, this conscious energy called soul may have a curved form like ellipse.

(iv) Nuclear fission or fusion shows the vast potential energy of a small particle like atom. Similarly, in the domain of meta-physics Soul and Supreme Soul which are minuter than the sub-atomic particles, can have tremendous conscious energy.

(v) Revelation of physics is that neutron is almost eternal because its time of decay is 1031 years which is 1000 billion billion times the age of the universe as calculated by evolution scientists. This final truth about matter gives a similar vision towards the immortality and eternity of the soul. Moreover, it is a fact of science that neutrinos have zero mass or they are almost mass-less. On the same lines, it can be understood that soul also has zero mass.

6. Soul & Supreme Soul (God) – Discrete particles, both are different

The starting point of modern physics, Quantum Theory developed by Max Planck in 1900 and further named by Einstein, brought a great change in the physicists’ concept of matter. Previous to Planck’s Theory, most physicists conceived of the world of nature or matter as a continuum. But the Quantum theory clearly states that the ‘continuous views’ of the world is replaced by a ‘’discrete’ one.

(i) Applying this Quantum theory, Einstein predicted that light is also made up of light particles called photons. Hence, Planck’s Quantum principle and Einstein’s Photo-electric Effect are based on the basic assumption that matter is not continuous, but is discrete and that even light which appears to be continuous is, in fact, made of particles called photons.

(ii) According to Statistical Mechanics, invented by J. C Maxwell and J.W Gibbs – a gas (also air which is a mixture of gases) is also composed of molecules or atoms which are individual in their nature.

(iii) Brownian Motion, developed by Robert Brown also states that liquids are also composed of discrete particles or quanta namely molecules.

All the above theories which come under the name of Quantum Theory, substantiate that nothing is continuous or one whole. Solids, liquids and gases, all forms of radiation including light are made up of discrete particles. This universal law can also be seen in meta-physics.

Now here the concept of God’s or Brahman’s all-pervasiveness propounded by monists, can be evaluated on the basis of Quantum theory.
If God only appears to be a continuous whole but is, in fact, composed or constituted of innumerable particles or innumerable discrete conscious quanta i.e. infinite number of discontinuous or separate souls, then this, however, can’t be because innumerable, separate conscious particles will give to the whole (if there be one) a split personality and such cannot be God’s personality (“Satyam Jñānam Anantam Brahma”) what monists speak about referring upanishadic statements. God is one single person or one single-consciousness. He is not a jumble or conglomeration of consciousness.

A conclusion that can be derived from the Quantum Theory is that Matter can be (and actually is) composed of innumerable discrete particles or quanta, but God cannot be (and is not) composed of numbers of innumerable particles (Souls). In other words, God is not (and cannot be) omnipresent, all-pervading or one who permeates the whole universe. There are innumerable Souls and God is one – supreme among them all.
Quantum theory in physics gives quantum principle in metaphysics and this latter runs counter to the belief that God is one whole, omnipresent or immanent power. Hence, God can only be a discrete particle – an infinitesimal point of light because light is the ultimate form of energy.

7. Entropy (Degradation) in Spiritual Energy & Entropy-reverse

The first and second laws of Thermo-dynamics are universally accepted and are applicable in both the spheres – material and non-material or spiritual.

(i) The first law of Thermo-dynamics, law of conservation states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only be transformed from one form to another form.

(ii) The second law of Thermo-dynamics says that every time energy is transformed from one state to another, there is a loss in the amount of that form of energy which becomes available to perform work of some kind. This loss in the amount of ‘available energy’ is known as ‘Entropy’. For example – if we burn a piece of coal, even then the total amount of energy remains the same, but due to the process of burning, some part of coal is transformed into sulphur dioxide and exhausts cannot be reburnt to get the same work out of it. This kind of ‘loss’, ‘wastage’ or ‘penalty’ is called Entropy.

The Entropy law states that all energy, in an isolated system moves from an ordered to a disordered state. The state in which energy-concentration is highest and available energy is maximum i.e. where entropy is minimum is also the almost ordered state (Sattvapradhāna avasthā) and where available energy has been highly dissipated and diffused, is the most disordered state (Tamopradhāna avasthā). Another aspect of the law is that whenever we make an attempt to reverse the entropy increase, it is only done by increasing the over-all entropy of the surrounding environment. The scientists Angrist and Herpler say – “Each localized, man-made or machine-made entropy decrease is accompanied by a greater increase in entropy of the surroundings, there by maintaining the required increase in total entropy.”

According to Dharma, the souls have originally 16 degrees level of energy-concentration and gradually, due to entropy, the energy level goes down, so that when there is maximum entropy and the level of energy-concentration is hardly three or four degrees, then Everpure Supreme Soul or God, the Highest Point-source of spiritual energy reverses the spiritual entropy by means of Godly knowledge and Rajyoga and the material entropy gets reversed by means of fission of nuclear weapons, natural calamities etc, so that the Earth, Water, Air and their products get again the maximum energy-concentration.

In other words, when the society has passed through its four stages of Golden age, Silver age, Copper age and Iron age and is in the fifth i.e. the Leap or Confluence age, then God Himself descends on this earth to reverse the entropy. The need of God’s act in such a situation is evident because, according to the Entropy Law, in a closed system, entropy increase cannot be reversed without increasing the entropy in the surroundings and therefore, in real terms, an outside source of energy is required to raise the energy-concentration without lowering the energy level in the surroundings.


From the above discussions it may be concluded that Modern Science and Spirituality are correlated disciplines of knowledge where for both of them, ultimate reality whether i.e. physical or metaphysical, is the prime matter of study. It is clearly observed that the established and undeniable Quantum principle, Relativity theory and Thermodynamics laws governing physical energy are equally applicable to metaphysical energy. Hence, on account of the theory of particle physics, spiritual energies vis. Souls and Supreme Soul are merely the discrete, sub-atomic particles of consciousness or sentient light. This conscient light energy’s manifested seven attributes of bliss, knowledge, peace, love, joy, purity and power are correlated to the seven hues of VIBGYOR. The infinitesimal point of spiritual light is eternal and massless conscient being with personality which has an elliptical form (aura) or energy shield or force field that expands or contracts according to the vibrations of thought- power and situation. The conscious energy, Soul loses its power gradually in due course of time by taking many births in form of bearing new new bodies and when Almighty Source of conscious energy descends on the earth and by receiving His divine connection then it makes itself fully charged with divine powers and restores them for the successive period of time cycle. In this regard, definitely Brahmākumāris’ subtle insight and spiritual knowledge, clearly presented by B.K Jagdish Chander with modern scientific methods regarding spiritual energy, the prime reality, occupy the most significant importance for the upliftment of the whole modern challenging world.


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